Benalla Migrant Camp 1949-1967

Migrant Stories

Kateryna Horbul’s Story Originally from Synkiw in Poland, Nationality Ukrainian, born 3rd April 1921 Kateryna Horbul was 20 when she was taken from Poland by the Nazis, separated from her family and transported to a Forced Labour Camp in Pegnitz where she was assigned agricultural labour in the surrounding district, with a labour registration stamp in her ‘’Arbeitskarte” (translates to work card) showing this was on 21st July 1942. During the years she worked in forced labour she was raped (by a person she never spoke about). When the war ended and about two months before giving birth to a daughter Maria in July 1945, Kateryna was returned to the Forced Labourers’ Camp in Pegnitz near Bayreuth in Bavaria. During her time there she had seen similar horrors inflicted on other women forced to work on farms. Many shared the same fate and fell pregnant after being raped and were subsequently found floating dead in the river Pegnitz, or the fields. (Kateryna would only ever give the most rudimentary information about all this to her daughter Maria, who asked her about it only as she got older. Often Kateryna would become violent and strike Maria in the face for asking.) The Forced labourers of Pegnitz lived in very basic barracks, and many died of starvation and cold. The mothers were normally ‘returned’ to labour 16 days after giving birth and the infants were left to their own devices. In information on the camp on Wikipedia I learnt that at least 29 babies died in the infant care facilities there during the war. It was planned by the administration that they should die of neglect. Kateryna had no choice but to stay in the camp until she had found a place to go. Many women who had children due to rape, particularly where they had also lost a husband and breadwinner in the war, then chose to come to Australia. Migration agents would visit the camps and recruit healthy suitable individuals. Australia offered single mothers entry under the 2 year labour scheme, where upon arrival the mothers had to work wherever they were sent to pay off their free passage. Australian officials put pressure on the mothers of young children (such as Kateryna) to leave their children in orphanages whilst they worked to repay their passage. What happened to Kateryna is that after arriving on the ship in Newcastle General Greely on 2nd September 1949 she was registered as Alien No 133552 and sent to Greta Migrant Centre to work in the kitchens. The four year old Maria was to be placed in a Maitland Orphanage and according to Maria, “she just dumped me there and I never saw her again (not even for a visit) until eight years later in 1957 when she just picked me up and dragged me by the arm, out of the orphanage to go to Benalla.” Maria says, “I guess she could have left me there and she didn’t. But WHY did she never visit?” Kateryna arrived at Benalla with Maria in August 1957, assigned work at Latoof and Callil. After that the family left for Melbourne and Kateryna struggled with depression and alcoholism her whole life. She physically abused Maria, who says she was always treated as if she did not exist. If someone asked her mother: Is this your daughter, she would just shrug. Maria says: She just went to work and I went to school and for a long time I thought this was normal. Maria says her whole life she wondered what she had done wrong for her mother to treat her like this. Only shortly before Kateryna died aged 78 in 1999 did she hint to Maria, that she was a child of rape. Maria said it helped her understand, and she had by then suspected something like this, but it made it no easier. “I could not imagine what my mother went through. Pain, suffering, no family, no friends.” “I am a strong woman because of my mother.”

BENALLA MIGRANT CAMP INTERVIEW QUESTIONS NAME OF INTERVIEWEE: Susanne Nawrocki nee Hummel PLACE OF INTERVIEW:Wodonga DATE & TIME OF INTERVIEW: Feb – May 2014 COUNTRY OF ORIGIN: Austria WHY THE DECISION TO COME TO AUSTRALIA: Our parents & another family ie Bachmann from our hometown of Neunkirchen had friends by the name of Krenauer from our town of Neunkirchen in Austria who had migrated 2 years earlier to Australia & lived in Benalla. Mr/Mrs Krenauer wrote regularly informing of better weather, the life style & how they could actually get somewhere with the money they earned compared to Neunkirchen Austria Post World War 2. Thereby ensuring a better lifestyle for themselves & especially for their children. Thus my parents decided to apply coming to Australia. Another factor was, even though World War 2 was over, there was always unrest in nearby (by Australian standards) countries & thus a fear of possibly becoming involved in another war. This was a duplicate fear because if that would occur both my father & brother would be involved & Mama could not bear that. HOW DID YOU TRAVEL? MEMORIES OF THE JOURNEY? When And Where Did You Arrive In Australia? We arrived at Melbourne’s Station Pier around the 19th?.Sep 1960. Mr Krenauer was there to greet us. Who Came With You (names and ages of family members)? – My Papa Rudolf Hummel aged 37, Mama Leopoldine Hummel 36, brother Rudi Hummel jnr 17, myself Susanne Hummel 9, my sister Eveline Hummel 5. Memories of arriving in Australia: First impressions – Huge mass of land with seas surrounding it. The sea journey from Freemantle Perth took approx 5 to 9 days before arriving in Melbourne. Then the long journey by train from Melbourne to Bonegilla which took hours. The countryside was huge & barren & what seemed to European standards quite underutilized. We only spent approx 1 week at Bonegilla before a German speaking man (staff member) drove us from Bonegilla in a combi van/station wagon to Benalla Migrant Centre where my parents & brother quickly got work at the Reynold Chain Factory & there made lifelong friends. Arriving at Benalla and the Migrant Camp – memories – Apart from the food which was like Bonegillas ie mostly mutton which none of the Europeans liked the smell of let alone taste, it became home to us for approx 2 ½ years. The huts were extremely hot in summer & very cold in winter. From when to when did you stay at Benalla Migrant Camp – We arrived toward the end of Sep 1960 & left approx beginning/middle of Mar 1963. Living at the Camp – the accommodation – Positives = it was the first time in our family’s lives that we had individual rooms. They were all in a row from right to left. My brother had his own room, my parents had their own room & my sister & I had our own room, which were connected by internal doors. It became more like home once our ship luggage arrived with curtains & photos etc. Where did you work? (Assisted Migrant Scheme Work Contract?) – My father, mother & brother all worked at Benalla Reynold Chain Factory. My father told me years later that the machines they worked on there were actually the same types they worked on in our home town of Neunkirchen Austria. When Neunkirchen upgraded their machines the original ones were sold to England & it seemed possibly to Australia. The food at the migrant camp – as per above ‘Arriving at Benalla Migrant Camp – memories’. It was the main reason why we moved out of Benalla Camp as soon as possible because we did not like to smell or let alone eat the mutton in the Camps Kitchen or in our rooms. Mama would spend lots of money to buy something in town which was more palatable to our taste. Therefore spending twice the money on food – the Mutton from Camp versus the shops (possibly delicatessen if there was such a thing in those days) in Town. The accommodation and facilities at the camp – schools, churches, big hall. Traditions/Family Celebrations – which did you have at the camp – any memories – My parents & my brother were involved in things like New Years Eve Celebrations. My parents were social people & enjoyed company, sport ie soccer, music, jokes, card games, outings etc. They quickly & easily made friends & joined in with like minded people from similar cultures & language. Their groups of friendships increased even faster & varied once we moved into town. Religious Celebrations – My brother Rudi was Godparent to Mr & Mrs Farkens first Australian born child Trish Farken. Music and Culture – My Papa bought an old (2nd hand?) Record Player with inbuilt Radio plus record bought at same time. We loved to play records on that. But my sister & I were not allowed to touch or use it in case we scratched the records or broke the needles. My brother however was & with part of his wage started buying 45s & LPs which helped him to learn English. He was a very good looking young man who loved music & dancing & still does as all the family did & do, he was quite popular. Social Events at the camp - Apart from the big Hall that was at the Camp I think the individuals organized their own get-togethers. School and Learning English – I liked school at Benalla Camp it seemed much more relaxed then in my school in Neunkirchen Austria. I especially remember fondly that the headmaster took our class out into the schoolyard & asked us to draw one of the big gumtrees. How clever of him, what better way of appreciating the difference in trees between our homeland & the ones in Australia. During our school play times/recess some of the girls would sit near geranium plants which grew in many different colours, we would pick their individual petals stuck them on our wet fingernails making them look like we were wearing nail polish. I liked school so much that I sometimes went to night classes at the Camps school with my Mama & where the adults used the classrooms to learn English by instructors. My parents were pretty good at learning languages although my Papa did not get as many opportunities to go to night school because he’d have nightshift work. Rules to obey at the camp - I was unaware of rules. Best and worst experience at the camp – Best experiences were making new lifelong friends. Worst experiences at the Camp was overcrowding, effecting food problems eg at times meals were served up complete with maggots, & even with fingernails in them at times. Mama wasted no time in throwing out bad food where it belonged ie into rubbish bins. Another time there was an outbreak of lice/flees in mattresses. Again she was proactive & immediately threw mattresses out of the rooms onto the dirt ground leaning them up against the huts outside of our rooms & made lots of noise to Management about it. She certainly made her feelings known & didn’t hold back. Prominent people in the camp (names and their role/job - memories of things they did) – personally I was unaware of that as a child. Except for our teacher/s who of course were prominent in childrens lives. Benalla people – relationships and friendships – Our families made lifelong friends from our Camp days. Families like the Farkens, Venkort, Gaugg, Mazurek, Kerekis, etc etc etc . Families of all backgrounds & countries even though most could not speak English in the beginning & then for a while only broken English but they all got on well. The countryside around the camp – how did you find it compared to the home country – Vast, sparce, dry, barron & underutilized compared to European standards. Finding a place to live and moving out of the Camp – Due to the problems mentioned under the heading of ‘Worst Experiences at the Camp’ which caused my parents money outlay of food to be doubled not only at the worst of times but also at the best as per type of food ie mutton on a virtual daily basis that we couldn’t even smell let alone eat. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Whilst living at the Camp my sister Evi regularly suffered from tonsillitis which progressively became worse so during the 1st or 2nd year of Camp needed to have a tonsilectomy & adenoids removed. That was extremely stressful for my Mama. Secondhand Bicycle - Parents bought a second hand bicycle so Mama could come check on my sister & I during her Reynold Chains Factory lunch break. Mail from Austria – The most eagerly awaited thing we looked forward to on a daily basis. News from home! Mama was a prolific letter writer, was extremely homesick & cried bucketloads of tears when reading or writing. My brother corresponded with his girlfriend Agathe in Vienna. I sometimes wrote to my cousin in Austria. So all 3 of us looked forward to the dail mail however Mama was the most homesick for a long time, things improved somewhat once we moved into our new Commission House at 56 Faithfull Street in Mar 1963. That same year my brother married Barbara Pawlowicz & soon after became the proud parents of their first borne son – Freddy. Both my sister & I attended Clarke Street Primary School when it was quite new ie it only had 4 classrooms & 4 teachers. We were their newest migrant students at the school. My parents travelled the 3 miles to & from work on a daily basis on their bicycles in all types of weather until a few years later when Papa bought an old Zephyr 6 car which protected them from the elements during their daily work commuting & driving for pleasure during the weekends. I actually learnt to drive in that car in the Reef Hills. We had it for a few years & Papa was even brave enough to drive to Melbourne to visit our Krenauer & Bachmann (our 2 original) Neunkirchen family friends after they’d moved there from Benalla & Bonegilla . I would proudly sit beside him in the front passenger seat being his navigator driving from Benalla to places like Mentone & Yarraville in Melbourne who migrated from our home town of Neunkirchen at the same time as we did & were on the same ship the Roma. I still keep in close regular contact with these 2 special families in our lives. A funny story regarding these 3 families is as follows – When we arrived in Melbourne Station Pier & Mr Krenauer met both my Hummel family there & the Bachmann family he took both my Papa & Bachmanns Papa for their first taste of an Australian Beer, but it became a stressful situation when both their wives & children were loaded onto the train to Bonegilla without both their husband & fathers who were late getting back. Mr Krenauer quickly hopped into his car with both our Papas & luckily caught up to us at Seymour. But all 3 men must have been in the bad books for a while at least. Seasickness on the ‘Roma ship’. My sister Evi & I were the first to suffer from seasickness, we’d barely left Italian dock when during a meal we became unwell. Our Mama quickly left the meal area with us & we barely made it to the handbasins in the corridor – we weren’t the only ones. During the next few days Papa spent his time in our section of the ship handing the buckets alternatively to Mama Evi & I – he certainly was kept busy. Rudi had episodes of feeding the fish, whenever he started feeling squeamish he’d go outside hold onto the ships rails & kicked with both legs to get every last ounce of food out of his system - that’s what I call doing your bit for the environment. On the ‘Roma’ ship families were segregated ie mothers & children in one area & husbands & boys eg my brothers age in another. But when my Mama suffered sea sickness to the extreme she was admitted to the ships hospital & whilst there my sister & I moved into my our fathers & brothers section. I do not know how long she was in hospital for but do know she’d lost a lot of weight in the process.

Janas Story

Wladyslaw and Janina Janas, both from Poland (Rudno and Jankow near Krakow) arrived in Australia on 14th January 1950 with their small daughter Barbara. First they were sent to Bonegilla and then to Rushworth Holding Centre, because presumably, Benalla Migrant Camp was full.

When they finally arrived in Benalla the same year, they stayed until August 1952 (about two years) and their second child, son Peter was born in the camp in March 1951.

The chest was kept all these years Barbara reflects, as a memory piece "Because it held all our family's worldly possessions at one time."

Written down by Sabine Smyth after a phone conversation with Barbara (nee Janas) in late 2012

Sent From Denmark via Email Dec 2019 from Margit:

We arrived from Denmark on 12.11.1956 with the ship "Castel Felice" . Sailed from Cuxhaven, Germany to Freemantle Perth and then to Melbourne. Our family: Svend Jørgen Jespersen, born in 1927, Marie Jespersen, born in 1931, Margit Lillian Jespersen, born in1952, Johnny William Jespersen, born in 1956, (all of us born in Denmark).


The 2 first weeks in Australien we lived in Bonegilla Immigrant Camp.


At Benalla my father Svend worked first at the sawmill J.A.Terrett & Co. Ltd., Benalla and later supervising by the Benalla railways, building the new railway in Victoria. My mother Marie Jespersen worked first a few months at Latoof & Callil Ltd., Benalla. Then about 3 years at Renolds Chains Ltd., Benalla.


I, Margit Lillian Jespersen went about 3 years to school in Benalla Immigrant Camp.

My brother Johnny William Jespersen was in the kindergarten in Benalla Immigrant Camp.

We left Australia/Melbourne on 10.03.1960 with the ship "Flamingo". Sailed from Melbourne to Sydney and then to Perth.

Arrived Bremerhaven, Germany and then the train to Denmark.

I am so sorry to read that the Benalla Migrant Camp is closing down now. But I am happy to read the history, things and photos will be sent to the Immigration Museum Melbourne or Museum Victoria. 

Thank you very much for all your done for that the history in Benalla Migrant Camp will be left in the future.

Sorry my english is not so good.

Kind regards from

Margit Jespersen

The Klopsteins Family (Latvia)

Emma Gotleib Klopsteins (nee Bruvers) arrived in Freemantle, Western Australia with her two sons, Harijs (Harry) and Elmars (Jim) on 5th January 1950 aboard the Skaugum. Residents of the Latvian capital Riga, Emma and 6 year old Harijs had fled Latvia in 1944, making their way across Poland, into Germany and eventually into a British managed Displaced Persons’ Camp in Germany, where Elmars was later born. The family spent five years there before migrating to Australia.

At this time the Australian Government had agreed to assist with the resettlement of Europe’s Displaced Persons. At the same time, for the security of the country, the Government had adopted a policy of increasing Australia’s population. The Government was happy to accept entire families as well as widowed or single women with children. The war had torn families apart and many of the women who came to Australia with children had little information about the fate of their husbands. Emma was one of these.

The Klopsteins’ voyage to Australia started from Naples on the Anna Salen but this ship broke down in the Indian Ocean and all passengers were taken to Aden. They were subsequently collected by the Skaugum, empty on a return voyage from Australia, which was diverted to Aden. When the Skaugum docked in Freemantle it was carrying 1,543 displaced persons, of whom 477 were children. The newspapers reported that 56 of the children had been treated for measles and 30 children were hospitalised for other health issues, but that generally the health of the passengers was good. The other newsworthy issue had been the concern of customs officers who had to gather up cigarettes thrown from the ship by exuberant passengers, excited at their arrival in this new land.

Emma Klopsteins and her two sons, together with 1400 other passengers, were taken by train to Northam and then by bus to Northam Migrant Camp. An insight into camp life comes from The West Australian, Friday January 6 1950

“From the time the first train is due a continuous meal will be available at the camp. This will consist of cold meats and salads, mashed potatoes, fruit, bread and jam. Iced tea and coffee will be provided to the adults and the children will be given equal parts of iced milk and water. Scrambled eggs and bread and butter will be prepared for children under three years.”

Emma, Harijs and Elmars lived at Northam and later at Cunderdin Migrant Camp until, after two years in WA, they were moved to Benalla Migrant camp. The reason for the move to Benalla is interesting. A condition of migration to Australia had been an agreement by Emma to work for two years in whatever job was found for her. “Unsupported mothers” as they were referred to posed problems for implementing this practice because childcare was an issue. Benalla Camp, with its two factories in close proximity, offered a solution. Schooling and childcare was provided in the Camp and mothers were placed in jobs at the factories.

Emma worked at the Latoof & Callil factory for several years and then in private service. She remained a resident of “the camp” until shortly before its closure in 1967. Emma passed away in Benalla in 2000, aged 88.

Harry made his life in Benalla, marrying local girl Andree Arnott and raising his 4 children there. Harry passed away in 2012 aged 74.

Elmars (Jim) initially worked with the State Electricity Commission in Benalla but then moved away to Melbourne, married and raised 3 children. The family moved around Australia with Jim’s work, eventually settling in NSW. Jim now lives in Sawtell, NSW.

Emma never again saw her family in Latvia. It was many years before she could correspond with them. Whilst this loss was great she felt safe in Australia and considered herself lucky.

Interviewed Thursday 25th October 2012 at Nina's home in Smythe Street with Son John (Janek) present. Notes by Sabine Smyth Nina K's Story Nina Kolodziejczyk (nee Klos) was born in Poland on 15th August 1927 and was 14 when WW2 broke out. After being driven from Poland Nina settled in Germany, and met Stanislav K whom she married in Coburg, Germany. As a 23 year old, with two small kids in tow, Janek (6 years) and Evey? (2 years) she remembers that their small family left Germany to make a better life. They journeyed on the migrant ship Hellenic, via Hong Kong. The K's arrived in Bonegilla on 4th February 1950 in the middle of the summer heat. Nina remembers they all cried from the shock, and they had no money to pay for ice creams or cold drinks for the kids who especially suffered from the extremely hot weather. No need to say the accommodation huts were also stiflingly hot and they all slept very poorly. Nina says she thought it felt 'like hell', the hardest time of her life. After six long weeks had passed, Stan was finally assigned work as a grape picker in Redcliff and Mildura. But the family had to stay behind in Bonegilla, and Stan returned once a fortnight which cost them 9 pound in fares. After a while Stan found permanent work in Shepparton, on the railways. At that time Nina insisted she wanted to be closer to her husband, so Nina and the kids were allowed to transfer to the Rushworth camp. By then the weather had turned and it was freezing. "I sewed four blankets together so we had ceilings because there were no ceilings at all and we were so cold." Stan bought an old motorbike so he could travel to work and back, but Nina says it always broke down and most times he ended riding an old bicycle to work instead. We stayed in Rushworth until Christmas and then we were able to transfer to Benalla, where Nina worked at Latoof and Calill and also in the hospital, as a domestic worker and cleaner. Nina said by the time she arrived in Benalla, she had enough of camps. She was keen to move to a house as soon as possible. Ask about these notes: Nina said she made a friend on the ship, who was pregnant. She said if you arrived together you stayed friends for life. John says he remembers life at the camp as good for kids. I remember we played two games, one called Pushki, the other Klimpi. 'It was a ball game. You had jam tins, tennis balls and wooden sticks, that was all, and it kept us enthralled."

Kulbars Story From notes written by Zigie to Sabine in 2012 As a 16 year old, Zigie and his parents, brother and sister lived in Hut 43 at the Migrant Centre in Benalla. It was their first home in Australia. The family migrated from Latvia in 1949 and arrived in Benalla via Cowra in NSW. The Kulbars family stayed in the camp until 1960. Zigie worked in the Camp Stores from 1955 to 1957 and his father was employed as a patrol man for the Immigration Department. Zigie always believed that the migrant camp site has special significance for Benalla and should be preserved. There is a media release with a photo of Zigie and detailing his failed appeal to save the camp, published around the time of the camp being dismantled/demolished in the 1990s. Zigie who arrived at the camp in 1949 told me when he visited the exhibition in March 2014: “There was a dance every fortnight, and a ball with a proper band once a month. The Migrant Camp hall was a fabulous venue. The band that came to the balls was the German Camp Band from Bonegilla. They played waltzes, tangos, even 'oompa' music."

Lemega Story Collection items belonging to the Lemegas are Mr Lemega's original suitcase and Irene Lemega’s little sewing basket: Irene wrote the story of the basket in January 2014: "On my first Christmas in the camp, there was great excitement amongst the children that Santa was coming. We all gathered down near the Boys' Club behind the mess hall and then Santa came with his cut-out sleigh and his cut-out reindeer being pulled by an old tractor - it was wonderful! Myself and my friend Velta each received one of these beautiful sewing baskets and over the years it has always been a reminder of that first wonderful Christmas at the camp." Sabine Smyth interviewed Anna Lemega at her home in Benalla in 2015. The following was written from notes after that visit:Anna Lemega originated from the German “Sudetenland”, today’s Czechoslovakia. In 1946 she was displaced from her home and had to go to Bavaria. She said there were no jobs, huge queues in front of the employment offices, and lots of refugees. Refugee accommodation was basic: beds were crowded into a pub’s dance hall, so tightly, that “to get to your bed you had to walk over other people’s beds.” Anna remembers that she decided to go to England because there was work. “I was not sad to leave because we were not liked in Bavaria, we were treated like ‘gypsies’. She stayed for 8 years and got married to a Ukranian man, Michael Lemega. They returned to Germany with two kids, Irene and Roman. Anna remembers reading about Bonegilla in the ‘Stern’ (well-known German Magazine). We decided to take a risk and go. The Australian Foreign Office was very interested in us because we spoke English. We departed from Bremen on the Castel Felice. On 27th December 1960 we arrived at Station Pier. We were only allowed to debark a full day later, then travelled to Bonegilla by train, via Seymour. “In Bonegilla I had a job on Day 10. First they asked me to help serve lunch at the camp, and then I got lessons on how to give injections and became a nurse at the camp hospital. I thought that was funny because as a small child I dreamt I was going to be a nurse, or a bee keeper, or a nun. “ “Because we spoke English well, Michael was then employed in the camp management at Benalla as administrator. We arrived there in September 1962. As an administrator Michael dealt with complaints, registrations and so on. I relieved other staff when they went on leave, such as Val Zintschenko at the hospital. “I also worked at Latoof and Calill. I felt sorry for the women that worked at Latoof and Calill who spoke no English, the Australian bosses used to yell at them to work harder. They were often in tears. I could at least help myself and speak up.” “People from town used to come to the camp for social functions, they were always very popular.”

The Mackowski Story (sent in by mail by Wendy Gray nee Mackowski early 2018)


Sometime during the Spring/Summer of 1948, Cecylia Kazmareck aged 25 took her five year old son Aleksandr and boarded a train which was traveling to the border between Poland and the American sector of occupied Germany. They were fleeing the advancing Russian Army.

When the train stopped at the border, some people disembarked and started to run across the border. Cecylia joined them. Darkness was falling and the shooting started. They were told to keep running and not to stop no matter what happened, even though people were falling around them, shot by the Russian border guards.

They arrived at a former German Army Barracks which was being run by the American Red Cross as a centre for Displaced Persons. Here they were clothed, fed and kept safe. Shortly after their arrival, Aleksandr’s appendix ruptured and after an operation he was hospitalized for a few days.

France, England, the US, Canada and Australia were some of the countries which offered refugee status to these people Cecylia chose Australia. After a long  train trip through Italy they arrived in Naples where they boarded the MS Fairsea bound for Australia.

The ship went through the Suez Canal and headed South. When they crossed the Equator there was a mock ceremony to mark the occasion (enclosed is a copy of the certificate that was handed out at the time).

Passport photos were taken on board.

The adults attended English classes on board of the ship and were coached in order to pass the obligatory dictation test (taken in English) before being allowed to disembark in Australia.

Included is  the English/Polish dictionary used by Cecylia.

Passengers left the ship at Freemantle and Adelaide. When they arrived in Melbourne, Cecylia and Aleksandr boarded a train at Station Pier bound for Bonegilla. On the afternoon of their arrival at Bonegilla, they were put on one of two busses and taken to Benalla Migrant Camp.

The last photo, taken about 1950, at the camp in Benalla, shows Cecylia seated in the foreground and Leon Mackowski is sitting behind her to the left. Cecylia married Leon on the 19th of August 1950. He adopted Aleksandr and the moved out of the camp to live in the town.

Enclosed are the certificates from that time granting them Permanent Residency in Australia. They became Naturalised Australians in 1956. Their daughter Wendy (me) was born on September 24th 1952.

Leon and Cecylia built a house in Benalla where they lived happily for the rest of their lives.